Jun 182019
 
Portrait of Anne Montgomery
Anne Montgomery

By Anne Montgomery

Time is growing short to make big changes to basic processes for service delivery to elders, who will soon constitute one-fifth of the U.S. population. Basically, we have a mismatch between the health care delivery system and what many older adults actually need.

Typically, older adults typically see multiple clinicians working in many settings – e.g., primary and specialty care, hospital care and home care — and communication between these providers tends to be inadequate. This in turn contributes to fragmented care that can be frustrating and costly. Medical services are often disconnected from the life goals and treatment preferences of a given individual, and his or her need for various supportive services are often not documented. Finally, although numerous smaller-scale initiatives have shown that much of the disability and frailty associated with aging can be effectively managed (and sometimes delayed or prevented), innovative models that prioritize these goals have not yet been widely implemented.

This suggests it’s a good moment for policymakers to consider piloting designated entities, perhaps called community-based health organizations (CBHOs), in order to organize provision of cost-effective supports across a population of high-risk, high-cost elders living in a given area or region. Broadly similar to a model developed by Joanne Lynn, MediCaring Communities, [https://medicaring.org/book-online/] CBHOs, operating as an interconnecting network, could be chartered to prevent and delay more costly inpatient and institutional care, working in partnership with local medical care providers. They would likely begin at a modest scale, forming networks in order to further develop business acumen, acquire information technology that is essential for interoperability, and develop collaborative relationships and contractual arrangements that over time can transition into more formal integrated care systems. As a distinguishing characteristic, CBHOs could measure and reinvest savings in improving community care systems.

Funnel stacked from Health System to CHBO

Shifting the Entry Point Average Cost/Day [Click to enlarge]

One intriguing graphic, created by Preferred Population Health Management and reprinted here with permission, provides an illustration in one community of how delivery system entry points and costs might be re-thought. For vulnerable populations, which includes many older adults, it may make sense to consider looking at community-based organizations (CBOs) or Area Agencies on Aging (AAAs), as another entry point to a more tightly coordinated care system that prioritizes cost-effective services that reduce the risk of needing higher-cost interventions.

Funnel stacked from CHBO to Health System

Changing the Entry Point to Health [Click to enlarge]

Using grant funding, CBHOs could be charged with standing up coordinated, synergistic delivery systems for older adults and individuals with disabilities across a service area. Collaborations could take various forms: partnerships between AAAs/CBOs and PACE organizations; with Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs); with Rural Health Clinics (RHCs), and other possible combinations. CBHOs would be tasked with analyzing available data on the needs of all older adults and individuals with disabilities who live in the area, filling in with more complete data over time. They would then create a five-year plan for serving older adults in the area, with approval requiring consultation and sign-off by a local coalition representing providers, advocates, and individuals currently needing (and/or anticipating needing) services. Approved grant funding would flow to CBHOs, and states would be asked to assist in tracking CBHOs and their performance vis-à-vis standardized metrics, costs, and outcomes for individuals. At the expiration of the grant period, the federal government, in consultation with states and community stakeholders, would determine which CBHOs could become permanent.

There are several indications that policymakers are starting to consider such approaches. For example, a Senate draft of the Older Americans Act reauthorization, which is now circulating for comment, includes language stipulating that future OAA demonstration projects must address determinants of health; reduce health care expenditures, “preserve or enhance” quality of care to individuals, and prioritize initiatives that focus on caregiver support, multigenerational engagement and community-based partnerships.

There are other hopeful signs in work that is being led by the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation (CMMI), which is teeing up a range of possible alternative payment models, and adaptations of existing programs to recognize and address social determinants of health in vulnerable populations. For example, as noted in our blog last month, [https://medicaring.org/2019/05/08/2019-cmmi-proposals/] CMMI has announced two groups of models, called Primary Care First and Direct Contracting. As part of the Direct Contracting Model track, CMMI published a Request for Information on how geographic contracting could work. Because they are typically limited to services that are available locally, older adults living with serious chronic illnesses and functional limitations and younger people with disabilities are populations that would be well-suited for a geographically-organized care model.

If local governments were allowed to be contractors, this could open up new opportunities for the Aging Network. To date, nearly all major federal innovation efforts have been geared toward large organizations working within the medical care system, but this could change. About half of AAAs are embedded in local governments, and AAAs and CBOs already understand how supportive services for older adults and other vulnerable populations can be efficiently delivered in very different types of communities. Moreover, as the nation’s primary publicly-funded network of community-based supportive services providers, staff are trained to organize and provide services in the home, and are therefore attuned to the life circumstances of individual elders.

In another encouraging development, CMS published an updated Scope of Work (SOW) in March for organizations applying to be Quality Improvement Organizations/Quality Innovation Networks (QIOs/QINs). Notably, this SOW instructs applicants to “coordinate with existing community-based efforts and reach community stakeholders to form community coalitions…[that] include the recruitment and engagement of providers across all care settings” — including those delivering community-based supportive services. QIN-QIOs will be required to use “a population based measurement strategy to show targeted improvement of beneficiaries that reside within specified ZIP codes” and to reach at least 414 community coalitions across the country. This means that QINs/QIOs will be actively supporting organizing of community stakeholders (providers, beneficiaries, caregivers and their families, emergency responders and more) in order to gather data that aims to improve care transitions and achieve specific reduction targets in high-cost inpatient hospital utilization.

By 2035, there will be 80 million older adults 65+ in the U.S., and the population age 85 and older will reach 12 million. And since many older adults have complex social needs and about one-third are living with a disability, this is an important time to try to shift the pattern of services further toward provision of home-based medical care and a more organized system of supportive, flexible, community-anchored services.

If we do too little now to deliberately boost the ability of the supportive services sector to innovate, it seems likely that unmet need for basic supports among many community-dwelling elders in the large boomer cohort will skyrocket. If this happens, health care costs will likely balloon. To help forward-thinking pioneers in this sector move forward faster, let’s hope that policymakers will give a green light to spurring development of collaborative, population-based care systems that are mission-driven to keep older adults at home and out of medical crisis for as long as possible. It’s a doable challenge, and the potential societal return on investment is large.

twitterrssyoutube
Oct 182018
 
Portrait of Dr. Joanne Lynn
Dr. Joanne Lynn, MD

by Joanne Lynn

Our aging society is a mountain to be moved – a large collective challenge we have to tackle together. Problem is, right now we’re using shovels when bulldozers would hardly do the job.

The mountain is reforming how eldercare is delivered and funded. We’ve allowed so many forces to converge over the years in a payment-driven, provider-centric framework, that we’ve managed to create a grim future for the last phase of aging. Most of us will have at least a couple years of self-care disability in the last years of life, no matter how healthy our life styles may become. While “healthy aging” is a terrific idea, it is one that eventually fails in most lives, simply because some form of frailty will still disable us, for a long time, and presage death.

Families are smaller, older, and more dispersed – there is often simply no one able to provide free care at home. Retirees have ever lower savings and insurance, overwhelmingly too little to pay for an expectable range of personal care. Medicaid is stretching state budgets and many more are set to spend down to eligibility. Communities have no entity actively monitoring and managing the performance of their unplanned and poorly coordinated eldercare arrangements. Serious illnesses and disability in old age is the dominant cause of family impoverishment and bankruptcy. Paying current per capita costs by raising taxes is not plausible by the mid-2030s [National Research Council. 2012. Aging and the Macroeconomy: Long-Term Implications of an Older Population. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/13465] – we will find ourselves balancing crippling the economy with abandoning dependent patients. Being able to support an expansion of public services and supports to accommodate more elders in need depends upon a thriving economy, and that depends upon highly productive young adults. Yet we now have half of children born into poverty and we tolerate high rates of young adults being unprepared for productive work.

Many issues compete for our attention. Why bother with dealing with old people? Two pragmatic reasons: old people and their children vote, a fact that makes it unlikely that elder care issues will be abandoned; and all of us will eventually join that cohort, a fact that makes it everyone’s issue. Furthermore, we really are part of a community, and we really won’t be able to ignore a retired school teacher’s homelessness, the gnawing hunger and painful isolation of a former jazz musician. Our better natures will require making basic needs available on a reliable basis.

In 2016, our team at Altarum worked with other national partners to push for caregiver planks in state and national party platforms — 11 states included a plank as well as having the issues show up for the first time in both Democratic and Republican national platforms. [Scribner, B. et al. (2017). Creating A Nationwide Nonpartisan Initiative for Family Caregivers in Political Party Platforms. J Am Geriatr Soc, 65: 1126-1131. doi:10.1111/jgs.14814] A key finding of voter polling work in this project was that voters of all political persuasions are energized and passionate equally about the needs of caregivers and supports that ought to be made available to families.

But how? The costs look to be overwhelming. The effects upon the economy and the opportunities for younger persons look to be disastrous. It is so much easier to duck and run – answer to the immediate issue but make no fundamental changes. There’s a better way.
Our arrangements for medical care assumed that people are mostly healthy and on their own, and from time to time they need medical care to return them to health. In frail old age, the question is not mostly to “fix it” but to “live well with it.” In this setting, continuity, care planning, and caregiver support matter – three elements that are mostly missing in our current health care. We need to dramatically reorganize health care to require these elements as essential in elder care.

What happens to support frail elders depends critically upon the arrangements for support in their geographic community. Is disability-adapted housing available and affordable? Can you get appealing and affordable home-delivered food? Is there an adequate workforce skilled in handling personal care at home, even for persons with dementia and persons who are difficult to serve? Do the dominant employers provide flexibility for family and volunteer caregivers? Are there volunteers organized to fill in most “instrumental activities of daily living,” such as minor home repairs and delivering food? Perhaps most important, is there an entity with the responsibility to address these issues – to monitor performance in that community and take steps to improve it?

With many communities doing this, communities would be able to benchmark performance and manage the arrangements in their community. Lots of independent businesses would still thrive, but collective action would also be possible and practices that distort service availability or quality could be constrained. Altarum developed a Financial Forecasting Tool [https://medicaring.org/2018/07/24/mcforecasting/] that can help communities understand the resources they already have — medical and health services, social services, community volunteer organizations, and others — and quantify the possible savings a reformed system of eldercare can produce. There is a lot of money being spent in the period when elderly persons live with serious disabilities, but it is not being used in planned, efficient, person-centered ways.

This is a more fundamental reform than just moving medical care to the home or providing coordinated post-hospital care, or whatever combination of currently “evidence-based” improvements you prefer. This is making some part of elder care into a public concern, managed at the community level. It is not just for dual-eligible elders, it is not just for persons who run up high bills, and it is not just for persons with particular diagnoses. This reform is for us all. We’ve called it MediCaring Communities. [https://medicaring.org/book-online/]

We must work on financing and service delivery at the same time. If we started now to build private savings for long-term care (through savings accounts or insurance), we’d have capital to stimulate the economy as well as less demand for public funding in fifteen years. Having a federal back-stop on long term care costs would create a vibrant marketplace for long-term care insurance. Professionalizing assistance with personal and supportive care would create better paying jobs in the care sector and these professional caregivers would be able to build a new middle class around eldercare professions, thus boosting, rather than draining, local tax bases. Planning for the whole populace also requires substantial reinvestment in ensuring that our children come into adulthood as highly productive citizens.

This is our opportunity time. If we buckle down and enable substantial innovation in some counties and cities, we’d learn what’s possible and other counties and cities would follow suit. We urgently need an era of profound and far-reaching innovation and learning. What can you do make it possible to overthrow the status quo? Be in touch with one another and with us – let’s dramatically increase the pace of improvement and build an elder care system that is highly reliable and efficient and build it in time to accommodate the rising numbers of disabled and frail elders.

twitterrssyoutube
Jul 242018
 
Anne Montgomery
Anne Montgomery

By Anne Montgomery

Imagine a meeting in your community — perhaps later this fall or next year — where you assemble a group of like-minded peers: health care providers, organizations offering supportive services, advocates, local leaders, policymakers and other interested stakeholders. You are calling them together because they all have an interest in improving the health and well-being of older adults in the area. Now, further imagine that at this meeting, you are aiming to craft a strategy that will establish, using current programs, a more efficient system of service delivery that reduces spending — in a way that keeps any resulting savings in the community.

If this sounds like something you may want to consider, keep reading! Altarum’s Program to Improve Eldercare has created a financial simulation model that contains essential data, and which can be used to benchmark costs for creating community-anchored eldercare systems. We call this tool “Financial Forecasting for MediCaring Communities.”

Here’s how the tool works:

First you’ll need to know (or create a good estimate for) how many older adults live in the area and require a mix of calibrated services – usually including medical care and supportive services delivered at home. Then you need to examine the improvements that evidence shows are likely to keep them more stable and out of medical crisis more of the time. Next you need a willing group of providers in the area – inclusive of hospitals, physicians and supportive services providers – who are interested in creating a more coherent system for older adults who are living with advanced illnesses and functional limitations. Interested parties you may want to talk to include PACE organizations, Emergency Room clinicians, long-term care providers, Medicare Advantage plans that offer expanded supplemental benefits (which have recently been enabled to look at supportive services in the context of expanded supplemental benefits), home-based primary care programs, and other service arrangements.

Using the tool, you can construct baseline cost estimates for each major service category, from inpatient hospitalization through lab services, durable medical equipment, vision, dental, long-term services and supports (LTSS), and more – on a per-person basis. Then your team projects expected changes in spending over several years, which will come from shifting the mix of services to focus more on primary care, skilled home health care and supportive home care, as well as supportive services (e.g., home-delivered meals, adapted housing and transportation. Because a rapidly expanding body of evidence shows that when lower-cost geriatric care and supportive services are emphasized, utilization of costly inpatient hospitalization and long-stay nursing home placements decline, this then yield targets for reduced overall spending.

After that, the tool will calculate projected savings, taking into account projected enrollment targets. Next you estimate start-up and ongoing administrative costs to implement that changes and to cover an entity (possibly comprised of some of the individuals at your meeting) that will monitor and track how well providers in the area are doing in delivering cost-effective services to frail elders. That entity, which we’ll call an “eldercare council” will be sustained from the savings that the improvements generate, so your team will need a plan for capturing and using at least part of the savings in your community.

Intrigued? We invite you to click on this link and watch the 14-minute video demonstration — https://youtu.be/K8rKW48Felw -– and send us an email if you’d like us to help you create a simulation for your own community: [email protected]

twitterrssyoutube
Jul 262016
 
MediCaring Communities cover

By Joanne Lynn

Nearly all Americans want a long life, and many of us will live into our 80’s and beyond. But as a society, we have avoided addressing the challenges of living well in the last years at a cost that our families and taxpayers can sustain. That’s about to change.

A new MediCaring Communities book from the Center for Elder Care and Advanced Illness, authored by Dr. Joanne Lynn, provides a comprehensive blueprint for re-engineering — in highly practical, doable terms — how to better organize service delivery and current publicly financed programs so that all Americans can count on living comfortably and meaningfully through the end of life. MediCaring Communities are deliberately designed to customize care around the priorities of elders and their families. The model also offers local organizations and governments a financial lifeline and a way to share in managing a care system so that it is as reliable and efficient as possible.

The MediCaring Communities model takes the best of “lessons learned” and “best practices” from the public literature and on-the-ground experience gained from working with frail elders and across many services systems. It addresses the unique needs of elders who need both medical care and long-term care through organizations that are either adapted or established de novo in order to deliver tailored geriatric and supportive services. These services are in turn modulated by each elder’s care plan – defined as a record of services that comport with an individual’s treatment preferences and quality of life goals. The substantial Medicare savings that result from lower utilization of high-cost services and improved, appropriate geriatric care, are then repurposed and reinvested in vital and underfunded homecare and related social supports, including home delivered meals, transportation, and training and respite for family caregivers.

Virtually everyone agrees this type of care is what they want for themselves and for their loved ones. We know exactly where we need to go, but how do we get there?

PACE Expansion

The Program of All-Inclusive care for the Elderly (PACE) provides one opportunity. PACE already has a solid reputation as a comprehensive program primarily for dually eligible beneficiaries who need medical care and long-term services and supports (LTSS). With the November 2015 passage of the PACE Innovation Act (P.L. 114-85), which brought innovations with PACE under the authority of the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation (CMMI), the federal government now has streamlined authority to fund innovations in the PACE model. With a green light from CMMI, PACE programs will be able to test expansions in two key populations: (1) Medicare beneficiaries or “pre duals,” who need LTSS services, and (2) dually eligible beneficiaries who are not yet disabled enough to meet their state’s Medicaid definition of a nursing home level of care.
If PACE scales to take on these new populations, the program’s advisory board could readily evolve to become independent and reflect a broader community perspective on frail elders. In so doing, it could take on greater responsibility for monitoring and improving eldercare services across the community. Such PACE expansion programs could show how to anchor a comprehensive model of care for all similarly situated frail elders in the area, whether or not they are disabled enough to qualify for a Medicaid nursing home level of care.

ACOs and MCOs

Another mainstream Medicare model is an Accountable Care Organization or a managed care plan. Either could sponsor a MediCaring Community by accounting for frail elders in a defined geographic area separately from their overall business, and establishing an integrated clinical and LTSS delivery system in that community. The savings harvested from avoiding low-value, overutilized services would be calculated annually. A share would go to Medicare, but most would be retained for reinvestment in social and supportive services. Challenges associated with an adapted ACO model are that the usual ACO has little track record to build upon for constructing an independent board and for collaboration with LTSS providers, but other organizations in their communities would likely have strengths in these areas and be willing to collaborate. ACOs also have substantial barriers to establishing dominance in an area and their current quality metrics are not well matched to service needs of frail elders, so both of these would need work to overcome. ACOs also often have limited expertise in geriatric care, and would need coaching to build strong interdisciplinary teams quickly.

MCOs likewise could sponsor a MediCaring Community, in much the same way as ACOs. An MCO would collect per member per month premiums, and savings would be the profits in hand. The challenges in developing clinical expertise, care plans, connections with LTSS providers, and an independent board would be fairly similar to the ACO issues outlined above. MCOs also face the challenge of today’s “star rating” system for quality. Excellent frail elder care effectively means not complying with many standard quality metrics, including tight control of diabetes, hypertension, and screenings for cancer. Also, MCOs are now required to offer the same package to all beneficiaries, so an MCO could not offer a MediCaring Community package in one area and not in others without a federal waiver.
There are several potential paths forward, but much work will be needed to get there. However, there are steps you can take today to get America moving in the right direction. You can push your Congressional representatives and state officials to allow MediCaring Communities to proceed, and encourage consumer and professional organizations to get involved. Lastly, spread the word about the MediCaring Communities book — Read it, and write a review on Amazon! We also welcome your thoughts and feedback. Write us at [email protected] with suggestions for improvement.

twitterrssyoutube
Jul 052016
 

New York, New York, July 5, 2016—A new financial simulation for a novel model of care, called MediCaring Communities, has shown significant Medicare savings for frail older adults who need both medical care and nonmedical support services.

Medicare savings ranged from $269-$537 dollars per person per month, depending on the community, its past patterns, and the pace of change anticipated. The four communities in the simulation were Akron, OH, Milwaukie, OR, Queens, NY, and Williamsburg, VA.

The U.S. could provide much better care for disabled and sick elderly people without exceeding what we now spend, the study shows. The team estimated enrollment and effectiveness of improvements, using local experience and research data.

These findings, from Altarum Institute’s Center for Elder Care and Advanced Illness (CECAI) [now Program to improve Eldercare] in partnership with Dobson DaVanzo & Associates, LLC, were published today in The Milbank Quarterly.

In the model, medical services were reconfigured to improve the experience of frailty in old age, starting with a comprehensive, elder-driven care plan constructed to reflect each older adult’s specific situation, prognosis, and personal priorities. Added to the mix were improvements to ensure that supportive long-term care services were reliable and readily available.

The financial simulation included Medicare beneficiaries with dependencies in two activities of daily living or cognitive impairment necessitating constant attendance.

“This model will be successful if just some of these savings from high-cost medical services are invested in nonmedical in-home support,” said Joanne Lynn, MD, CECAI director. “It should be easier for a disabled elderly person to get home-delivered meals, or for a family caregiver to get a few days relief, than it is for a doctor to prescribe a $10,000 pill. At present, we have our priorities wrong.”

“Programs already exist that could make this happen if CMS (Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services) allowed it. Accountable Care Organizations and the Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE) would be terrific foundations for a MediCaring Community,” continued Lynn. “To address the needs of millions of seniors, we must use the next few years wisely, aiming to deliver much more reliable and comprehensive care to high-cost elders—without increasing the costs. Now is the time to take these lessons and use them to change how we help older adults, and bolster programs across the country that will help elder communities thrive in the oncoming ‘age of longevity.’”

Contact: Judith Zimmer [email protected] 212-355-8400

About Altarum
Altarum (www.altarum.org) integrates objective research and client-centered consulting skills to deliver comprehensive, systems-based solutions that improve health and health care. Altarum employs almost 400 individuals and is headquartered in Ann Arbor, Michigan, with additional offices in the Washington, D.C., area; Portland, Maine; and San Antonio, Texas.

About The Milbank Quarterly
Continuously published since 1923, The Milbank Quarterly features peer-reviewed original research, policy review, and analysis from academics, clinicians, and policymakers. The Quarterly’s multidisciplinary approach and commitment to applying the best empirical research to practical policymaking offers in-depth assessments of the social, economic, historical, legal, and ethical dimensions of health and health care policy. The Milbank Quarterly is published in March, June, September, and December on behalf of the Milbank Memorial Fund by John Wiley & Sons. www.milbank.org/the-milbank-quarterly

twitterrssyoutube
Jun 202016
 

MediCaring Communities: Getting What We Want and Need in Frail Old Age at an Affordable Cost
Published June, 2016
194 pages, 6″ x 9″ (15.24 x 22.86 cm)

ISBN-10: 1481266918

List Price $9.95 at Amazon.com

Americans want a long life and most of us will get to live into our 80’s and beyond, but we have not squarely faced the challenges of living well in the last years of long lives. This book lays out a thoroughly pragmatic way to organize service delivery and financing so that Americans could count on living comfortably and meaningfully through the period of disability and illness that most will experience in the last years of life – all at a cost that families and taxpayers can sustain. MediCaring Communities offers to customize care around the priorities of elders and their families and to manage the local care system so it is reliable and efficient.

MediCaring Communities book cover

MediCaring Communities book (click cover to view on Amazon.com)

Three out of four of us will need long-term care. The period of needing someone’s help every day now lasts more than two years, on average. Most of us will not have saved enough to get through this part of life without financial help from family or government – indeed, we’ll spend almost half of our total lifetime healthcare expenditures in this last part of life, mostly on personal care that is not covered by Medicare. We have not yet required housing to be modified for living with disabilities or secured a ready supply of home-delivered food, and we certainly have not required medical care to focus on the patient and family priorities in order to enable the last years to be meaningful and comfortable. Family caregiving will be a crisis as families become smaller, more dispersed, older, and facing inadequate retirement income for the younger generation.

MediCaring Communities improve care by building care plans around the health needs and living situation of the elderly person and family, and especially from respecting their choices about priorities. The improvements in service delivery arise from integrating supportive services at home with customized medical care and installing local monitoring and management. The improvements in finance arise from harvesting savings from the current overuse of medical tests and treatments in this part of life. These come together in MediCaring Communities.

Strong evidence supports each component, but the real strength is in the combination, where savings support critical community-based services, communities build the necessary environment, and elders and their families craft their course with the help of interdisciplinary teams. This book lays it out, using expansion of PACE (The Program of All-Inclusive Care of the Elderly) as the test case. The book provides a strong and complete guide to serious reform, and just in time for the aging of the Boomers which will escalate the needs dramatically during the 2030’s. Now is the time to act.

You can read extracts online.

Advance Praise for MediCaring Communities

“For decades, Joanne Lynn’s has been the clearest, strongest, most soulful voice in America for modernizing the ways in which we care for frail elders. This essential book is her masterpiece. It offers a magisterial, evidence-based vision of that new care, and an entirely plausible pathway for reaching it. Facing a tsunami of aging, our nation simply cannot afford to ignore this counsel.”
—Donald M. Berwick, MD, President Emeritus and Senior Fellow, Institute for Healthcare Improvement, and former Administrator, Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services.

“MediCaring Communities integrates good geriatrics and long-term services and supports, and building upon an expanded PACE program can be a tangible start. We should try this!”
—Jennie Chin Hansen, Lead in Developing PACE; Past President, AARP; and Past CEO of On Lok Senior Health Services and the American Geriatrics Society.

About Joanne Lynn

Joanne Lynn, MD, MA (Philosophy and Social Policy), MS (Quantitative Clinical Sciences), is Director of Altarum Institute’s Center for Elder Care and Advanced Illness. Dr. Lynn has served thousands of persons in their last years of life in home care, office practice, hospice care, and nursing homes. She was one of the first hospice physicians in the United States. Dr. Lynn has been a tenured professor at Dartmouth and George Washington University, a quality measurement expert on the staff at the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, the Bureau Chief for Cancer and Chronic Disease in the public health office for Washington (DC), a senior researcher at RAND, and on the Institute for Healthcare Improvement’s quality improvement faculty. She is a member of the National Academy of Medicine, a Master of the American College of Physicians, a Fellow of the Hastings Institute and the American Geriatrics Society, and an author of more than 280 peer-reviewed publications, 80 books and chapters, and a dozen amicus briefs and publications for public commissions.

The reader can learn more about our work and give us advice and insights at MediCaring.org.

About Altarum Institute

Altarum Institute (Altarum.org) is a nonprofit research and consulting organization based in Ann Arbor, Michigan. Altarum integrates independent research and client-centered consulting to create comprehensive, systems-based solutions that improve health. One focus has been addressing the challenges of living with advanced illnesses and disabilities in old age through the Center for Elder Care and Advanced Illness. The dozen staff at the Center aim to help the United States achieve social arrangements that ensure that, when we must live with serious chronic illnesses associated with advancing age, we can count on living meaningfully and comfortably, at a sustainable cost to our families and society.

twitterrssyoutube